Olga Z. Eremchenko, Doctor of biological sciences, professor, head of the sub-department of plant physiology and soil ecology, Perm State University (15 Bukireva street, Perm, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Oksana A. Chetina, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor of the sub-department of plant physiology and soil ecology, Perm State University (15 Bukireva street, Perm, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Anastasia K. Arisova, Postgraduate student, Perm State University (15 Bukireva street, Perm, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Natalya D. Vanysheva, Master degree student, Perm State University (15 Bukireva street, Perm, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Background. The resistance of plants to adverse conditions is determined by their biological characteristics and depends on the properties of the soil. The effect of the soil environment pH on the mineral nutrition of plants remains an urgent problem due to acidification of previously calcined soils and man-made alkalization. The purpose of the studies is to determine the content of Ca2+, K+, Na+ ions in the roots and leaves of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), sown rye (Secale cereale L.) and sown peas (Pisum sativum L.) when the reaction of the medium in sod-podzolic soil changes.
Materials and methods. For the experiment, sod-podzolic soil (layer 0–10 cm) with pH = 5,2 was used. Soil neutralization (to pH = 7,3) was carried out by adding CaCO3. To form an alkaline medium (up to pH = 8,4), Na2CO3 was added, after which the relative sodium content in the soil was 0,2 %. Soaked plant seeds were planted in containers with moderately humid soil. Wheat and rye were grown for 8 days, peas for 18 days. The concentration of Ca2+, K+, Na+ was established by flame photometry after the dry suspension of leaves and roots of plants.
Results. When growing on acidic soil in wheat and pea leaves, a reduced content of K+ ions was established. Perhaps this is due to the blocking of transport channels in the root system by aluminum. A decrease in K+ ion content is also observed in the alkaline low saline soil test in wheat and peas. This is most likely due to disruptions in the processes of selective absorption of ions by the roots. In the leaves and roots of cereals on acidic and, especially, on alkaline soil, there is an increased accumulation of Ca2+ ions. This can be seen as a reaction of adapting to an unfavourable environment. Against the background of the general accumulation of Na+ ions in the leaves and roots of plants grown on alkaline slightly saline soil, rye seedlings are characterized by less disorders of Na/K exchange.
Conclusions. When changing the reaction of the medium in sod-podzolic soil, changes in the content of cations were noted, due to both disturbances in mineral nutrition and adaptive processes in plants. Selective accumulation of cations indicates the peculiarities of functioning in plants of highly selective channels and ion transporters.
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